The development of international exchanges and cooperation of Shanghai Open University can be dated back to the last century. In its 60-year history of running school, especially since the 1990s, international exchanges and cooperation of Shanghai Open University have made great progress. Based on Shanghai and looking at the world, the university has given full play to its regional, field and technological advantages, continuously expanded the breadth and depth of international cooperation and exchanges, built an international exchange platform for open distance education, and strived for international right of speech, thus forming distinctive international features of open distance education, and winning high praises from its world counterparts and significant international influence.
I. From Glory to Challenge: Review of International Cooperation and Exchanges of Shanghai TV University
When it was Shanghai TV University, the university followed the basic law of developing world higher education, especially the open distance education, learned from the teaching experience of world-class open universities, focused on open education and lifelong education, and thought and considered its own development from the perspective of international higher education, especially the open distance education. Thanks to the unremitting efforts of students and faculty of Shanghai TV University, it has created lots of firsts in the history of international exchanges of distance education in Shanghai and even China, and won many international awards. In 1997, it was approved by UNESCO to become the host institution of the UNESCO UNITWIN Network in Distance and Open Learning. In 1998, it held Shanghai International Conference on Distance and Open Education, an international conference with the highest level and standard in the field of open distance education in China. In 1999, it won the Silver Award for UN ESCAP Human Resources Development. In 2003, it held the first World Summit of Mega Universities and Presidents Forum. Stating from 2005, it has held UNESCO Chair’s Serial of International Training Workshops. In 2008, it became the first distance education institution in China who voluntarily applied for and passed the Quality Assurance Audit of the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE). In 2009, it won the ICDE Prize of Excellence of the International Council for Open and Distance Education. In the same year, the Turning the Digital Divide into Digital Opportunity: The Project for Building the Digital Lifelong Learning System in Shanghai TV University won the UNESCO King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize.
However, due to various limiting factors like school-running levels, teaching forms and student types, the international exchanges and cooperation of Shanghai TV University have been faced with both opportunities and challenges, advantages and disadvantages for a long time. Students and faculty of Shanghai TV University overcame many difficulties and won great historical honors in international exchanges and cooperation, which is a pressure, and also a development responsibility to forge ahead, even a driving force for innovation and transformation for Shanghai Open University.
In July 2010, approved by Shanghai Municipal People’s Government, Shanghai Open University was established, the first officially established open university in the country. Minister of Education Yuan Guiren sent a congratulatory letter to the university. On June 25, 2012, the Ministry of Education officially approved the renaming of Shanghai TV University as Shanghai Open University, and the former Shanghai TV University was officially withdrawn. So far, a new type of university in Shanghai has officially operated. In order to build an “open university with significant international influence”, we must stand on the platform for international open and distance higher education to examine ourselves, seek for development, and guide the university’s development with an international perspective. The international exchanges and cooperation of Shanghai Open University must forge ahead on the original solid foundation. With the mission of being higher, newer and better than TV University, Shanghai Open University, as an innovative attempt of China’s education reform, on the original basis, boldly explore new fields, channels and modes of international exchanges and cooperation, and make use of the operation mechanism, achievements, experience and quality resources of international organizations and foreign institutions of open distance education and lifelong education to fully realize its important functions in international exchanges and cooperation.
II. From Quantitative Change to Qualitative Change: A Decade’s Practice and Exploration of Shanghai Open University
Since its establishment, Shanghai Open University has always regarded international exchanges and cooperation as an important puzzle in its development blueprint. In 2012, State Councilor Liu Yandong clearly put forward at the establishment meeting of the Open University of China, Beijing Open University and Shanghai Open University that the open universities “should strengthen international exchanges and cooperation, learn advanced concepts and successful experiences to continuously improve school-running levels and influence”. The university’s construction target is: to build an open university with significant international influence; its main connotation includes: The exploration and practice of the construction mode of modern open university with Chinese characteristics will achieve important results and exert great international influence. Specifically, the quality of open distance education complies with international standards; its students have a certain international view and can participate in international exchanges; it reaches international advanced level in the utilization and construction of educational resources; it has an important say in the research and practice of international open distance education. The contributions to the construction of learning society are recognized and praised by international counterparts.
To achieve the above international targets and results, students and faculty of Shanghai Open University need new horizons, ideas and practices, and actively explore new communication channels and cooperative breakthroughs to further promote the connotation construction and transformation development of this new university.
In the past decade, the university has implemented Outline of Shanghai’s Plan for Medium-and Long-Term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020) and the 13th Five-Year Plan for the Development of Shanghai Open University. Taking the construction of the open university as an opportunity, it has given full play to international features of distance education and actively expanded the depth and breadth of international exchanges and cooperation. From building “the country’s first-class modern open university with important international influence” to “a first-class open university with Shanghai features, Chinese characteristics and world standards”, students and faculty of Shanghai Open University have seized the historical opportunity of the transformation development of open universities, innovated the thinking of international exchange, continuously improved exchange levels and broadened the areas of cooperation to establish a distinctive and multidimensional framework of international cooperation system. The booming international exchanges and cooperation has played a significant role in the development of open universities, the expansion of the international vision of faculty and students and the improvement of its international visibility and influence.
(I) Open mind helps succeed: Adhere to opening up and establish an extensive cooperative partnership
In the past decade, Shanghai Open University has successively signed cooperation agreements with many foreign universities and organization such as the Open University of the United Kingdom, Open Universiteit Nederland, FernUniversität in Hagen, Thailand Sukhothai Open University and the African Council for Distance Education, an alliance organization of the African open universities, to establish extensive and diversified cooperative partnerships. Signing the formal cooperation agreement is a new step in the process of the cooperation between Shanghai Open University and these world-renowned open universities, which is also a practical basis for deepening their cooperative levels, jointly building and sharing global high-quality open educational resources.
On the basis of establishing formal cooperative partnership with the world-famous open universities, Shanghai Open University has continuously promoted joint exploration of distance education-based fields of cooperation. Some concrete cooperative projects have been launched, especially in the UNESCO UNITWIN Network, curriculum resource construction, distance faculty training, academic research cooperation and teacher-student communications.
- In 2011, Shanghai Open University was admitted to join the China-Africa 20+20 College Cooperation Program implemented by UNESCO and Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, and then it signed and launched the cooperation agreements with the African Council for Distance Education. The university was awarded the Outstanding Supporting Institution Award by the African Council for Distance Education (ACDE) in 2014.
- In 2013, the university signed a memorandum of intent for strategic cooperation with the Open University of the United Kingdom. The two sides will conduct in-depth cooperation in capacity building, educational resources sharing, mutual recognition of credits, teacher-student exchange, academic research and other fields, laying a good foundation for further strengthening the connotation construction of Shanghai Open University in the field of international exchanges and meeting the needs of diversified groups for quality education.
- In 2014, the university signed a memorandum of strategic cooperation with the president of the Open Universiteit Nederland.
- In 2016, the university signed a memorandum of cooperation with Thailand Sukhothai Open University.
- President Yuan Wen, as a Chinese representative, signed a memorandum of cooperation with FernUniversität in Hagen during the China-Germany Dialogue Forum 2019, which laid a good foundation for the cooperation between China and Germany open universities in digital distance education.
(II) Quality builds brand: Innovate international teacher-student exchange project of Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University and build an international brand of open education
German educator Jaspers once said: “The ideal of a university depends on the practice of every teacher and student. The development of students and teachers is always the core of the Open University’s international exchanges and cooperation. In the past ten years, Shanghai Open University has made many breakthroughs in the practical exploration of international teacher-student exchanges and international personnel training: The first time to organize short-term international teacher exchange program, the first time to recruit international students, the first time to obtain the educational qualification for recruiting international students, the first time to send students abroad for exchange and study. The goal of building an international brand was established where the teacher-student exchange project was created. It was named Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University, which means inclusiveness, mutual help and pooling in Shanghai. It has the same connotation as today’s Belt and Road initiative and the construction of the community with a shared future for mankind.
(I) International Visiting Scholar Project of the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University. In 2013, the university established the International Visiting Scholar Program of the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University to select and accept outstanding experts and scholars from universities all over the world for research and study. Since then, 12 consecutive sessions have been held and nearly 120 international scholars from more than 50 countries have visited the university. Different from the traditional long-term visiting program, our International Visiting Scholar Program boasts its advantages of intensive project time, wide range of personnel composition, theme focus, wide coverage of the country and diverse organizational forms. It has obvious effects on rapidly enhancing inter-school understanding and trust, rapidly enhancing the international influence of the university, effectively incubating and producing international cooperation projects, and promoting the all-round development of international exchanges between teachers and students of the head and the branch campus. This project has gradually formed an international brand and played an international leading role. After the Open University of Korea and the Open University of the Philippines followed our lead in establishing short-term visiting scholar programs, the Open University of the United Kingdom explicitly followed this project and set up the STEAM short-term visiting scholar project on the occasion of its 50th anniversary this year.
Figure 1: International Visiting Scholar Program of the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University
(2) International students short-term course program of the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University. Based on its own reality, the university has been offering the international students short-term course program of the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University since 2013. It is another breakthrough of Shanghai Open University in international exchanges and further expands the educational scale. This study-abroad program focuses on Chinese, cultural theory and interactive experience courses, so that international students can personally understand and experience the Chinese language, culture and social features, and understand the school-running characteristics of Shanghai Open University. The Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University short-term international student programs are available to global open universities and overseas partner institutions, while absorbing our students as volunteers to communicate throughout the process, has created opportunities for them to enhance cross-cultural communication and international understanding, and has also accumulated valuable experience in foreign student education management, teaching Chinese as a foreign language and English teaching for the university. As one of the brand activities in the university’s international exchanges and cooperation projects, the international students short-term course program of the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University has been held for six consecutive sessions since its establishment in 2013, nearly 300 students from more than 30 countries have participated. Through the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University, many international students have built up a strong feeling for Shanghai Open University, Shanghai and Chinese culture. Among the previous overseas students, some have already got internship opportunities in multinational companies in Shanghai, and some have successfully won Chinese government scholarships to further their studies in Shanghai. More students continue to learn Chinese, even they return their country. And then they become friendly messengers of Chinese culture.
(3) The branch schools coordinate to take the execution of international student education programs. In 2014, with the official approval of the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, Shanghai Open University officially obtained the educational qualification to enroll overseas students coming to China. It also makes Shanghai Open University the first adult college to obtain the qualification. In the long-term accumulation of international exchanges and cooperation, Shanghai Open University has formed its own characteristics and advantages, giving full play to the advantages of its branch schools and enriching the connotation of international student education programs. In 2016, Shanghai Open University, Hongkou Branch and ESSCA signed a cooperation agreement to jointly carry out the education program for international students in France. Till now, the university has accepted 214 students from the ESSCA for short-term study in China. In 2018 and 2019, in cooperation with the Fashion Branch, Shanghai Open University held the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University Eastern Fashion Insight Workshop, which has the distinctive features and take the combination of the professional construction and excellent Chinese culture. It has also deepened the understanding and awareness of international students on Chinese social culture and economic culture, which gets better results.
Figure 2 International Students Short-term Course Program of the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University
Quality builds brands and hard work achieves dreams. Because of the continuous persistence and innovation of the Immersion Hub in Shanghai Open University, our international popularity and influence have been improved and the two-way communication effect has been achieved. In 2019, Shanghai Open University organized for the first time a delegation of outstanding students to participate in the Understanding Economic Changes international student exchange program at the Russian Saratov Institute of Social Economy, and won scholarships from the university. The dream of Shanghai Open University students to go abroad and exchange abroad came true. In promoting the education for foreign students, Shanghai Open University has also achieved the breakthrough in sending students abroad for study and exchange.
(III) Hold on to make achievement: Relying on the UNESCO UNITWIN Network, it has become an open distance education center of East Asia.
UNESCO is the biggest international intellectual cooperation organization around the world. UNITWIN/Chairs Programme is a widely influential program launched by the organization in the 1990s. Since Shanghai TV University became the host institution of the UNESCO UNITWIN Network in Distance and Open Learning in 1997, it has organized and carried out a series of international academic activities.
Over the past ten years, the scope and speed of its international influence radiation for knowledge sharing and collaborative work have been continuously increasing. In the name of the UNESCO UNITWIN Network, Shanghai Open University, together with the units such as China National Committee for UNESCO and UNESCO, have committed to organizing multiple international conferences and seminars to promote the international academic exchange program in Shanghai Open University and expand its international influence.
- In 2011, focusing on lifelong learning and credit bank construction, Shanghai Open University held the 6th International Series Seminar of UNESCO Chairs in Distance Education.
- In 2014, with the theme of U – Learning: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions, it held the International Conference & UNESCO UNITWIN Network International Seminar and published conference proceedings.
- In 2015, it held the International Conference on Capacity Construction of Open Universities in the Era of Globalization.
- In 2016, it held the International Conference on Leadership and Innovation for the Future in Open and Distance Learning.
- In 2017, during the 20th anniversary of the establishment of the UNESCO UNITWIN Network in Distance and Open Learning, the commemorative activity and second network work conference were held with the theme of Back to the Future: ODL Action Plan for 2030.
The international conferences and seminars organized by the university have attracted great attention in the field of international distance education. Many university leaders, as coordinator of the UNESCO UNITWIN Network in Distance and Open Learning, have been invited to deliver keynote speeches at international seminars organized by international organizations (UNESCO headquarters in Paris) and overseas member institutions of the Network (South Korea, Thailand).
When the Network was established, there were only 4 member units: Shanghai TV University, Korea National Open University, National University of Mongolia and the Open University of Hong Kong. Since its establishment, Shanghai Open University has been actively developing its brand while continuously expanding its friends circle, attracting more open universities at home and abroad to join it, and expanding the international influence of UNITWIN Network. By 2019, the Open University of the United Kingdom, Open Universiteit Nederland, Thailand Sukhothai Open University, Allama Iqbal Open University, the Open University of China and other well-known open universities at home and abroad have joined one after another. The Network members have increased to 20 open universities covering 8 countries, including China, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Thailand, and Sri Lanka.
The activities of the UNESCO UNITWIN Network have strengthened the connection between Shanghai Open University and UNESCO, created an international exchange platform with the characteristics of open distance education, also demonstrated the influence of Shanghai Open University in the field of international open distance education. It has established its leading position in the development concept and connotation construction of the international open university.
(IV) Absorption achieves excellence: Persisting in focusing on lifelong education and realizing in-depth cooperation with UNESCO
The breadth and depth of a university’s participation in the activities of international professional organizations are usually considered an important symbol of the level of international exchanges and cooperation. Regardless of whether it is Shanghai TV University or Shanghai Open University, the university has long-term close and frequent exchanges and cooperation and achieved fruitful results with important international organizations in the education field such as UNESCO, the International Council for Open and Distance Education, the Asian Association of Open University, and the African Council for Distance Education.
The Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly proposed to “accelerate the construction of a learning society and vigorously improve the quality of the people”, and the National Education Conference put forward “accelerate the construction of a lifelong learning system”, putting lifelong learners in a more prominent position and endowing the open university a new mission in the new era. Since 2018, international exchanges and cooperation of Shanghai Open University have been focusing on the field of lifelong learning, and has established a deeper and closer cooperation with the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. Supported by the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission’s Belt and Road Promotion Plan advanced seminar fund, our university and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning jointly organized the Capacity-building Workshop for Developing Lifelong Learning-oriented Education Systems in UNESCO Member States and Capacity-building Workshop for Developing Education Systems from a Lifelong Learning Perspective, which has carried out capacity building training for 69 educators and leading decision-makers from 8 developing countries including Indonesia, Vietnam, Kenya, Namibia, China, Cambodia, Philippines and Rwanda, promoted lifelong cooperation with UN member states and countries along the Belt and Road, mutual learning and common development of lifelong education, learning city construction, shared and spread Shanghai experience.
In October 2019, the university signed a project cooperation agreement with the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning and established a UIL-SOU project cooperation office to promote cooperation in improving the UNESCO member states’ capacity of implementing lifelong learning strategies and learning city construction, implementing the research project of the Role of Global Universities in Promoting Lifelong Learning, constructing a global electronic resource library of lifelong learning and learning city construction cases, and joint carrying out capacity building training. It is the first time UIL has established a permanent branch in a global university mechanism.
Figure 3: Signing of UIL-SOU Project Cooperation Agreement and Opening of the Office
Figure 4: Capacity-building Workshop for Developing Education Systems from a Lifelong Learning Perspective in UNESCO Member States
Through global project cooperation with the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, Shanghai Open University will promote its international reputation in the field of lifelong learning and in global higher education institutions, and build a platform for Shanghai to share its role in promoting experience and professional knowledge of lifelong learning, which will further consolidate the Shanghai’s status as an advanced city in the field of lifelong learning in the world.
(V) Professionalism leads to development: Cultivating a team of internationally qualified teachers, and promoting connotation construction of Shanghai Open University
The basic task for the construction of Shanghai Open University is to cultivate high-quality teachers. In order to expand the international vision of teachers and enhance the professional ability of them to further build a first-class open education, Shanghai Open University continues to explore and innovate international training programs for teachers and takes actions through the dual mode of “going out and bringing in” to benefit more teachers. In the past ten years, while vigorously supporting teachers to carry out overseas study visits, the university continued to innovate teachers’ short-term overseas training and domestic international training projects, developed from the comprehensive training of distance education in Australia to the professional training in the Open University of the United Kingdom, the United States and Germany, achieving the improvement of this university teachers’ professional competency through international trainings.
During the period of TV University, the university initiated a series of open and distance education training missions to Australia to help young faculty and staff improve their understanding and grasp of modern distance education, and improve the overall quality and level of the open university faculty. After being renamed as Shanghai Open University, the university continues to innovate and explore ways in strengthening the construction of connotation and professional teachers. Through more targeted international research and training programs, the university helps its students and faculty explore the answers to questions such as educational models, resource management, information platforms, teaching management, and quality standards.
After the successful conclusion of the 10th training mission to Australia in 2013, the university cooperated with The Open University of the United Kingdom to carefully plan the special training theme. For four consecutive years from 2014 to 2017, professional teachers and key management technicians were organized to carry out targeted training in The Open University of the United Kingdom on different topics of interest in the construction of the university. In 2018, the university implemented the first overseas training program for professional teachers, explored the mode of international nursing personnel training, promoted professional construction and curriculum construction, and met the demand for talent cultivation in universities specialized in old-age care in Shanghai and the shortage of elderly care talents in Shanghai. In 2019, the second batch of professional teachers’ overseas training group closely follows the Shanghai 2035 urban planning and development goals and our university ‘s talent training objectives. By learning from Germany’s advanced experience in training applied talents with craftsmanship spirit and ability, the training group introduced German’s concepts and systems in professional and curriculum construction, professional development of teachers, online curriculum development and school – enterprise cooperation, to optimize talents training program, explore professional co-construction, and promote the reform of applied talents training mode. Therefore, it can provide faculty support for Shanghai’s establishment of “five centers”, its launch of “four brands”, and the cultivation of “craftsman-type” talents for the development of advanced manufacturing in China.
- In 2014, the university organized the training group to the Open University of the United Kingdom to receive training on Open Education Model and Teaching Resource Management.
- In 2015, it organized the training group to the Open University of the United Kingdom to receive training on Open Education Teaching Mode Reform and Information Platform Construction.
- In 2016, it organized the training group to the Open University of the United Kingdom to receive training on Open Education teaching and Management and System Teaching Team Building.
- In 2017, it organized the training group to the Open University of the United Kingdom to receive training on Quality Standard Setting and Control Mechanism Construction of Open Education.
- In 2018, as a professional construction service platform for senior care services in Shanghai colleges and universities, Shanghai Open University organized 10 teachers in Shanghai universities and colleges related to elderly care professionals to go to Stevens-Henager College in Utah, United States for professional training.
- In 2019, 20 teachers from the system of Shanghai Open University went to COGNUS International in Germany to receive a 21-day “craftsman-type” talents training model theme training.
In addition, the university has successfully introduced foreign high-quality teacher training resources to the campus to serve the whole system of the university. Since 2017, the university has also introduced excellent teachers and training projects from well-known distance education institutions such as the Open University of the United Kingdom and the Open University of Hong Kong. It has successively carried out expert theme lectures, special training, workshop training, and so on. And the workshop project started from the practice of curriculum case development and effectively improved the construction level of teachers’ curriculum and learning resources. By 2019, a total of more than 120 teachers have gone abroad for study and exchange, and 203 teachers from Shanghai Open University and its branch schools have participated in the Learning Design and Curriculum Design Workshop jointly organized with the Open University of the United Kingdom.
(VI) Hard work leads to hope: Taking the initiative to serve the national strategy and developing new models of Chinese language international education and Chinese culture communication
The university has been adhering to the national development strategy and strengthens the expansion of the Belt and Road Initiative national exchanges and cooperation projects. In 2019, it cooperated with universities such as the National Textile University of Pakistan, relying on the advantages of open distance education, and opened the Shanghai Open University overseas Chinese learning center for the first time in Pakistan to implement Chinese language and culture teaching, multimedia teaching resources construction, and remote teaching support service and related research.
In addition, the university continues to carry out overseas Chinese language and culture distance teacher training, expanding the coverage and influence of Shanghai Open University in the field of Chinese literature and culture distance education. Since 2013, Shanghai Open University has cooperated with the former Overseas Chinese Affairs Office (now the United Front Work Department) to provide distance teacher training in overseas Chinese, and in 2016 was awarded the Shanghai Chinese Literature and Culture Education Base. The university holds an average of 20 distance training for overseas Chinese literature and culture teachers each year, reaching out to overseas Chinese literature and culture educators in Australia, Canada, the United States, France, Italy, Germany, Austria and other countries. In 2019, it recorded and broadcasted training courses on the basis of live broadcast for the first time. Meanwhile, WeChat application was broadcasted to a wider range of overseas Chinese school teachers. Up to now, a total of 100 distance trainings has been held, with more than 3,000 overseas Chinese educators and overseas audiences participating in the training.
In order to provide high-quality learning resources for overseas distance learners, Shanghai Open University has built a batch of online courses for overseas learners since 2013, some of which have been released on the iTunes U platform. These courses include: Chinese courses such as Building Yourself and Building People: Leadership Practice Course, I Love the Beauty of Chinese Characters, Chinese Music, Chinese Ceramics, An Hour Introduction to Chinese Painting, Swaying Chinese Dance and Chinese Ceramics: Pottery, as well as English courses such as Decoding Chinese, Learning Chinese Easily, Chinese Culture and Society and Thinking and Doing of Chinese Employees.
In addition to self-built courses, Shanghai Open University has also purchased authorized courses and has built a total of 18 courses including business, Chinese as a foreign language, Chinese culture series and the first Open Chinese mobile Chinese learning App. The completion of these courses will not only meet the growing demand for Chinese learning in the Belt and Road countries, but also serve the online Chinese teaching in the Overseas Chinese Teaching Center of Shanghai Open University.
III. Starting Again from A New Point: Prospects for Future International Exchanges and Cooperation
Ten years have been a rush, but it is also a long time. Looking back at the past, it is full of hardships and glory; looking forward to the future, it is a long way to go. The international exchanges and cooperation of Shanghai Open University has made great achievements through laying a new foundation in pioneering work and arduous exploration, creating new models in reform and transformation and facing the world, entering a new era in innovation, development and quality improvement. Today, a multi-level, distinctive, and overall international exchanges and cooperation pattern that meets the needs of the development of the university’s career has initially taken shape, which strongly supports the reform and transformation, connotation construction, and foreign exchange needs of Shanghai Open University.
The world has not seen a big change in a hundred years, standing on a new starting point, marching on the road of international cooperation and exchange, students and faculty of Shanghai Open University is still constantly thinking and exploring ways to deal with it. There are thousands of roads, but the only best way is to insist on innovation and continuous progress. The answer lies at the feet of students and faculty of Shanghai Open University, in the hearts of students and faculty of Shanghai Open University, and on the way of our struggle. With the unremitting efforts of the students and faculty of Shanghai Open University, the university will usher in a new round of international exchange and will get to the center of the international stage of lifelong education. (By: Weng Zhuhua, Han Yu)
Figure 5: Shanghai Open University organized teachers to go to The Open University of the United Kingdom to receive teacher training.